It is also known as Titanite, which is named for its titanium content, which occurs as translucent to transparent, reddish-brown, gray, yellow, green, or red monoclinic crystals. These crystals are typically sphenoid inhabit and are often twinned. Titanite has a hardness of 5.5 and a weak cleavage. Its refractive index is 1.885–1.990 to 1.915–2.050. Owing to the quenching effect of iron, Sphene exhibits no fluorescence under ultraviolet light. Titanite occurs as a common accessory mineral in intermediate and igneous rocks and associated pegmatite’s. It also occurs in metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and schists and scarns. Source localities include: Pakistan, Italy, Russia, China, Brazil, Tujetsch, St. Gothard, Switzerland, Madagascar, Tyrol, Austria, Renfrew County, Ontario, Canada, Sanford, Maine, Gouverneur, Diana, Rossie, Fine, Pitcairn, Brewster, New York, and California in the US.